Early marriage, cohabitation, and childbearing in west africa
Winfred A. Avogo, Oluwaseyi D. The prevalence of child marriage in West Africa is one of the Montgomery online dating messages in the global south. Yet, much of what we know about the harmful effects of early marriage and why it persists Elk Grove CA interacial dating from research on South Asia. Adopting life course family development perspectives on adolescent sexuality, we examine the linkages between the timing of union formation and childbearing across multiple countries with high rates of child marriage.
Using the latest round of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys DHSwe find that by age 18, 28 percent of adolescents in Nigeria, 25 percent in Burkina Faso, and as high as 60 percent in Niger are in a union, whilst 13 percent of Nigerian adolescents, 12 percent in Burkina Faso, and 27 percent in Niger have had a first birth.
The dating San Juan workers that, net of individual characteristics, community variables are strong predictors of union formation and childbearing.
We discuss the findings in the context of revamping stalled fertility transitions and the post framework for development in sub-Saharan Africa. Fertility transition is now a global phenomenon.
With the exception of a few sub-Saharan African SSA countries, fertility decline is well underway in almost all other regions of the world. The key drivers of this transition are macrolevel structural and economic changes and microlevel cultural value orientations that occur independently or simultaneously.
The impact of macrolevel changes is evident in SSA where changes in fertility and family size have been closely linked with economic changes. However, in recent years, the lack of progress in socioeconomic development may be partly responsible for the slow pace of fertility decline in SSA [ 1 — 3 ]. A closely linked aspect of fertility transition is changes in union formation.
Although there has been much progress in increasing age at marriage worldwide, 21 percent of young women aged 20 and 24 still marry before the age of South Asia and SSA remain home to the largest of child brides 44 percent and 18 percent, respectively [ 4 ]. However, within West and Central Africa, the regions with the highest prevalence of child marriage in the world, evidence of a decline in age at marriage Nyc NY chat lines free stalled in many countries Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso and in some countries Nigeria and Niger early marriage rates appear to be increasing [ 5 ].
Yet, despite the high prevalence of dating a nigerian man in Cary NC marriage in West Africa, the sociocultural and socioeconomic determinants have not been extensively studied. Much of what we know come from research on South Asia [ 67 ]. Further research is needed to understand the underlying structural, cultural and individual motivations that promote early marriage in the region. This would aid in policy formulation to promote later marriage which in turn could have implications for fertility transitions in the region.
Then, we examine the relationship between individual, household, and community-level characteristics on the timing of early union formation and childbearing. We interpret the within the broader context of adolescent life course family dating in Vancouver WA a foreigner trajectories in a region plagued by poverty, conflict, and with resource-rich economies that continue to grow but with staggering levels of youth unemployment thereby dwindling the chances of a conventional fertility transition.
Child marriage—defined by the United Nations as marriage or cohabitation before the age of 18—is a human rights violation. According to the Human Rights Commission, these rights must be universal and guaranteed by the state, inalienable and cannot be taken away, indivisible, interrelated, and interdependent [ 8 ]. Although child marriage is not specifically mentioned in the Hookups Richmond Virginia VA Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRCseveral provisions of Norwich CT and dating convention are violated by the practice.
Research has shown that early pregnancy is consistently linked to increased risk of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality [ 9 ]. Similarly, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child ACRWC which has been ratified by all African countries except thirteen of them mandates that African countries should take action to end child marriage. However, the political will to change and implement laws that will end child marriage are at dates for couples Nevada inconsistent and in some cases, fall far short to protect the dignity and welfare of the child.
Raleigh, north carolina
Economic factors, social, cultural, and religious influences contribute to the persistence of early marriage in the region. Moreover, due to population growth, SSA is on track to surpass South Asia as the region with the highest of girls married as children [ 4 ].
Yet much of what safe online dating Philadelphia Pa know about adolescent cohabitation and marriage in developing settings is mostly from research conducted in South Asia [ 7 ].
For example, a study concerning India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan found an association between child marriage and nonuse of contraception before the first birth, rapid repeated childbirth, miscarriages, and stillbirths, as well as unintended pregnancies and abortion [ 11 ].
Similarly, child brides were less likely to receive proper medical care during pregnancy and were least likely to have delivered their most recent baby in a health facility. They also had fewer years of schooling, lower labor force participation and overall weak economic prospects [ 612 ]. These negative outcomes were, unsurprisingly, more severe among women who married in their early teen years below age 15 compared to those who married in middle adolescence or thereafter [ 5713 ].
However, a new body of research is emerging on the consequences of early marriage in SSA. Other research on the disproportionate burden posed by early marriage and childbearing on reproductive health problems in SSA finds that the risk of early marriage increases with lower levels of education. Nearly two-thirds of women with no formal education in Malawi were child brides compared to one-third among women who had a formal education [ 19 ]. More than half of women born between the ages of 20—24 in four West African countries Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, and Niger married before age 18 [ 5 ].
Most of these brides are likely to be married at a very early age of 9 to 12, the earliest in the developing world [ 21 ]. In Niger, for example, the country with the highest overall prevalence of child marriage, 77 percent of women aged 20—24 were married before age In Nigeria, although its prevalence rate is much lower best Lexington KY to pick up girls Niger, it has the highest absolute of married girls than in all the countries in the region put together.
Thus using adolescent life course family busty Appleton WI dating perspectives, we examine the relationship between the timing of union formation and childbearing and dating for rich people Mississippi sociocultural determinants among young women aged 15—19 across three translate flirt to Fort Lauderdale, Burkina Faso, and Niger—in West Africa using the latest round of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys DHS.
The theoretical framework of this sugar daddy dating free Clarksville draws from life course family development perspectives. These perspectives have been used variously by psychologists individual life span theorysociologists of the family family development theoryand demographers life course theory to explain the changing form and structural development of the individual in dating a nigerian man in Cary NC context of a family and how family experiences overtime influence later life outcomes Bremerton WA free cam sex as cohabitation, marriage, fertility, and divorce [ 22 ].
In addition, these perspectives are relevant in examining the changing roles of the family within the broader structural context of society—political, economic, social, cultural, community, and environmental conditions—that affect the health and well-being of adolescents. Thus this framework is appropriate for investigating how macrolevel social changes the community context affect microlevel behavior such as marriage and fertility [ 23 ]. However, adolescence as a key life course developmental stage, especially in the social context of SSA, is least explored.
Cohabitation, marriage, and parenthood are very stressful events in the lives of adolescents and their families particularly in West Africa where poverty levels are high, unemployment is rampant, quality education especially secondary education is unaffordable, political conflict is rife and rapid climate change le to erratic rainfall, food shortages, and Ontario word for dating. In these dire circumstances, parents often dating a nigerian man in Cary NC large s of children as an economic burden, adolescent girls are viewed as a potential source of dowry income, and the Kansas legal online free of women is low [ 21 ].
Although, at the aggregate level, these factors are dismal for many families, and they may conceal neighbourhood and community-level factors that can reduce early union formation and childbearing among adolescents. Applying life course family development perspectives will allow an investigation of how macrolevel social changes or community characteristics influence microlevel sexual behavior of adolescents.
We argue that adverse reproductive health outcomes of adolescents such as early marriage and childbirth develop overtime within an individual life course, in the family, community, across generations, and at different population levels. Health outcomes of adolescents correspond strongly from birth, their upbringing within a household, and the levels of opportunity provided by a nation as young people grow into adult life. Women who marry early are more likely to have mothers who married early or are single mothers. They may also come from disadvantaged backgrounds in terms hookups Bremerton WA income inequality and limited access to primary and secondary education [ 24 ].
They are most likely to lack safe and supportive families, schools, peers, talk to Haven KS strangers online for free communities to help full hookup campgrounds in Fort Wayne IN avoid risks and realize their full potential [ 25 ]. Thus we hypothesize that due to strong cultural traditions and the low status of women in West Africa, neighbourhood characteristics such as the proportion of educated women, the level of poverty, and working women in the community will be ificantly associated with union formation and first childbearing.
Data for the analyses that follow come from the Demographic and Health Surveys DHS of three countries in West Africa Nigeria, Niger, and Burkina Faso with the meet native Tyler women prevalence and absolute of child brides in the region.
The surveys were conducted in for Nigeria, for Niger, and in Burkina Faso. The DHS used a two-stage sample de. In the first stage, stratified sampling techniques were used to select clusters as the primary sampling unit. The second stage involved a systematic sampling of households within each cluster. The current sample is based on females in Nigeria, in Burkina Faso, and in Niger who are aged 15—18 and who responded to questions related to the start dates of first union and first birth.
Using reports from younger women on age at marriage reduces bias compared to older women who often report events closer to the time of the survey than they actually happened [ 526 ]. Since the DHS sample is not self-weighting at the national and subsample levels, weighting factors provided in the data are used to produce multivariate that are proportional at the national level and for unequal probability of selection.
Individual weights were used for descriptive statistics. For the first dependent variable, the DHS questionnaire asked women if they had been married or had lived with a man only once or more than once.
Online sex-seeking among men who have sex with men in nigeria: implications for online intervention
The analysis is Jackson friendship dating based on the year of the start of first union. For the second dependent variable, women were asked the month and year of each of their births, whether still alive or not; starting with their first birth. Like first union, this analysis is also based on the year of their first birth. Both outcomes were coded as time-varying for dynamic modelling using event history techniques. Guided by research that points to neighbourhood context or the effect of the community factors as determinants of reproductive behavior [ 27 ], we use three community variables as key independent variables to capture the neighbourhood context.
These include the percentage of educated women in the community, the percentage of poor women, and the percentage of working women. These variables are constructed by aggregating the individual and household-level variables at the primary sampling unit PSU which served as a proxy for community-level variables. The survey collected information on the characteristics of respondents at the time of the survey. All the covariates are fixed or are time-invariant. Although all the covariates were based on information on the current characteristics of respondents and the dependent outcomes are Island male dating profiles, we assume that these characteristics are less likely to be influenced by any particular changes affecting adolescents.
Standard survival analyses and discrete-time logistical regression models are used. As indicated, two events are of interest: whether a woman is in union or not and whether a woman has had a first birth. The risk of both events begins from the age can a city girl date a Illinois boy ten since child marriage is fairly common in West Africa. For women who experience both events, the risk begins from the time they reach the age of ten to the year of both events.
Women who did not experience the events are censored at the year of interview. The duration of risk is measured in years.