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Article : Author biographies Plain-language and multi-lingual abstracts PDF version. This paper analyses bird local Eugene swingers identifiable at least to family-level collected from archaeological sites inand by P.

Kirch, in the Gambier Group, French Polynesia. Eighteen bird species, four newly recorded in this archipelago, are represented among the bones from archaeological layers dating from human arrival in the tenth century to the late pre-European contact period in the early nineteeth century.

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They reveal that the original avifauna from the Gambier Group minimally included 37 species. These include six now extinct taxa, a species of Pseudobulweria petrel, two columbids Bountyphaps obsoletaDucula tihonireasini n.

Minimally, a further six species have been extirpated from the Gambier Group. These archaeological avifaunas are strongly dominated by seabirds Columbidae were the dominant land birds Stanislas Rigal.

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Patrick V. Trevor H. Keywords: Mangareva; Pacific; archaeology; prehistoric birds; procellariiforms; columbids; new species. New prehistoric avifaunas from the Gambier Group, Mississippi gambier dating Polynesia. Palaeontologia Electronica Copyright: December Paleontological Society. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4. Extinctions, especially of birds, have often been the unintended consequence of human arrival on islands white woman dating an Naperville man the subsequent environmental changes resulting from human activities such as hunting, forest clearance, and habitat disturbance Steadman, ; Kirch, ; Hume and Walters, ; Walther and Hume, Historical occurrence data has often documented many of these extinctions Greenway, ; Fuller,but for many oceanic islands such historical records are lacking, so study of osseous remains is the only way to assess former diversity.

However, due to the scarcity of suitable fossil deposits, free swinger ads Myrtle study of the archaeological record often provides the primary insight into the pre-human avifaunas. This is especially true for the Polynesian islands of the Pacific where the uneven geographic coverage of Pacific-wide archaeological investigations prevents biogeographers from fully appreciating human influences on free Midland TX party lines distribution of species, especially for birds Steadman, and therefore restricts our understanding of the evolution of the fauna.

The Gambier Group lies in the southeast corner of French Polynesia, km southeast of the Acteon Group in the Tuamotu Archipelago and km northwest of Henderson Island, on the Tropic of Capricorn about midway between Australia and South America, see maps in Steadman and Thibault and Cibois showing the geographical context of the group within eastern Polynesia.

Here we use the term Gambier Group for the entire set of 14 islands and islets that are encompassed within a barrier reef and lagoon to form a near atoll Figure 1.

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The old and high m island of Mangareva 14 km Newport News VA black woman looking for love and the 13 smaller associated islands are volcanic in origin. The Tuamotu-Gambier Archipelago owes its existence to the Pitcairn volcanic hotspot, which resulted in volcanic activity between 25 m. Bonvallot et al. As the Pacific Plate advanced to Mississippi gambier dating northwest across this hotspot, the volcanic islands of the Gambier Group were the penultimate group to be formed, between 6.

After Mangareva, Taravai m, 5. All of these islands including some islets motu are separated by relatively shallow water, but would have formed continuous land during most of the Pleistocene. Archaeological research has revealed that the human pre-European colonization of the Polynesian region occurred in two distinct phases separated by approximately years Anderson,; Kirch et al.

The first phase occurred when people of the Lapita culture expanded eastwards Canton OH see dating the Fijian archipelago to colonize the Samoa-Tonga area between BC Burley et al.

The second phase involved the expansion of Polynesians out of the Samoa-Tonga homeland into the central eastern Pacific beginning around ADleading to the colonisation of the Society Islands, the Marquesas, Mangareva, the Pitcairn-Henderson group and Easter Island by approximately Free chat lines in Nashville Tennessee TN ms Anderson and Sinoto, ; Conte and Anderson, ; Kirch,table Mississippi gambier dating.

The more remote Hawaiian archipelago was settled between AD Athens et al. Given these fairly recent dates for human arrival in the islands of eastern and marginal Polynesia, the impacts of humans on the avifaunas of the eastern Pacific are in all cases quite recent. Green's excavations produced identifiable bird bones, although only four were of native land birds Steadman and Justice, ; Steadman, A new archaeological campaign launched by P. Kirch and E. Conte in and resulted in the discovery of abundant bird bones, especially in the Onemea or TAR-6 site on Taravai Island identified in test pit 2 at TAR-6; Worthy and Tennyson,foreshadowing the acquisition of a ificant sample informing on the former Online dating for Medford schoolers avifaunas.

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The rich avifauna and associated early radiocarbon dates suggested that the Onemea site was likely to have been a pioneering settlement Conte and Kirch, ; Conte et al. Further investigations at TAR-6 in greatly expanded the sample of bird bones, and taphonomic analyses of about half of the recovered bird bones or fragments showed that they derived find friends Santa Barbara CA free birds that humans had consumed Kirch et al. Analyses of other faunal remains indicate that the earliest colonisers introduced the Pacific rat Rattus exulans and probably pig to Taravai Swift et al.

Additional field campaigns by Kirch in and expanded the initial test excavation in site AGA-3 on Agakauitai Island, and re-excavated the Kitchen Cave KAM-1 site on Kamaka Island first dug by Green; avifaunal remains were recovered Mississippi gambier dating both of these sites. Here we report on the total available Chesapeake VA men white women dating from the TAR-6, AGA-3 and KAM-1 sites, and present data on bones identifiable to family-level or lower taxon levels, in total representing minimally individuals.

This led to expanded excavations inwith an additional 10 units being dug, resulting in a total excavated area for the TAR-6 site of 12 m 2 Kirch et al.

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Find friend in Torrance CA greatest concentration of bird bones, however, came from the initial test pit TP 2, and from three adjacent units TP-5, -6, and that formed a 1 by 3 m trench at the top of the dune, situated close to TP In these Mississippi gambier dating units, the stratigraphy consisted of a thin, organically enriched loam Layer I overlying a reddish-gray, charcoal-enriched cultural deposit Layer II about 60 cm thick, which in turn overlies a reddish-yellow aeolian sand Layer III generally lacking Trenton NJ date for couples but containing a high frequency of bird bones.

Although not a midden deposit, the upper part of Layer III was clearly deposited after the arrival of Polynesians on the island, as this deposit contains the bones of human-transported rats Rattus exulans and landsnails Allopeas gracile along with a few basalt flakes and pieces of worked pearl shell. Eleven radiocarbon dates were obtained from the TAR-6 site, and bracket initial human activity at the site between approximately AD This deposit also contains bird bones, although the density is considerably less than that in Layer III.

The Nenega-iti rockshelter site AGA-3 lies at the base of the steep volcanic ridge on the northwestern side of Agakauitai Island, about m from the present shoreline.

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A mere overhang with a surface area of about 35 m 2 inside the dripline, the shelter nonetheless has well-stratified deposits Bremerton blossom date in evidence of substantial occupation. A single test pit excavated in Conte and Kirch, did not fully penetrate to the deepest occupation deposits.

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Inan excavation of 9 m 2 exposed a ificantly expanded sample Kirch et al. Seven radiocarbon dates Kirch et al. The large Kitchen Cave rockshelter KAM-1 on Kamaka Island, first excavated by Green inwas re-examined by Kirch and his team inrevealing well-stratified deposits in an area adjacent to Green's Palmdale mature dating excavation.

Inthis test pit was expanded with an additional 4 m 2for a total of 5 m 2. The excavations have yet to free message Naperville IL published in full, but a series of 13 radiocarbon dates indicates initial occupation beginning around AD and more-or-less continual use of the rockshelter probably intermittently until European contact.

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Kirch et al. South Bend boy dating profile bones ly reported from the Onemea and Nenega-Iti sites Worthy and Tennyson, were re-examined and integrated in the analysis. In total, the collection comprised bird bones identified to family or lower taxon levels and unidentifiable bird bone fragments.

Specimens were examined under magnification with a binocular microscope for anatomical features and to compare to reference specimens. Comparisons were made with modern skeletons where possible or to the material reported by Worthy and Tennysonwhich was identified with reference to the extensive seabird skeletal holdings in the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Wellington, New Zealand. In particular, the bones ly identified as Pseudobulweria species Worthy and Tennyson were our primary reference material for this taxon.

Nashville Tennessee TN military dating from the South Australian Museum SAM and bones from the archaeological campaign, ly described by Worthy and Tennysonwere used to identify the bones.

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Reference skeletons used in the identification of these bones are listed here. In addition, the columbid bones were compared with specimens from Teouma Worthy et al. We followed the taxonomic nomenclature in Dickinson and Remsen The procellariids online dating Elkhart IN in english occur in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean fall into three size classes; small, medium and large e. Among small shearwaters, the Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni dichroushere including P.

However, several other small shearwaters either probably did or still do forage in the non-breeding period in the Tuamotu Archipelago, and in some cases may have formerly bred there, e. Among larger shearwaters, the breeding range of Christmas Shearwater Puffinus nativitatis spans the tropical central and eastern Pacific, including the Gambier Group and the Pitcairn Islands Brooke, b; Thibault and Bretagnolle, ; del Hoyo et al.

This issue of multiple similar-sized co-occurring taxa is especially problematic among Pterodroma petrels.

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Minimally, five small taxa frequent the tropical eastern Pacific. Furthermore, P. Thus, all these small species of Pterodroma could occur in the Gambier Group on occasion. Several medium-sized Pterodroma species breed in the eastern tropical Pacific Pratt et al.

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In addition, the Henderson Men in Nevada looking for love P. Similarly, the Phoenix Petrel P. Given extinction has resulted in the loss of many breeding colonies of petrels since human colonisation, it is likely that more than one taxon each of small and medium petrels formerly bred in the Gambier Group, and certainly several would have and still do forage in the group. As noted by numerous authors, identification of petrels to genera based on skeletal elements is straightforward, but specific separation of congeneric similar-sized species, is often not possible on morphology alone Wragg, ; Olson and Rasmussen, ; Tennyson et al.

Given the diversity of similar-sized taxa either occurring or likely to have occurred in the Gambier Group region, find Kalamazoo MI girls adopt a conservative approach and identify bones to genus and size as follows using the term magn.

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The domestic junglefowl was first introduced by Polynesians to widespread islands in Manchester bases of dating Polynesia Southern Cook Islands - Marquesas - Easter Island; data limited by archaeological investigationbut had gone extinct in the Gambier Group before European arrival Green and Weisler, ; Thibault and Dating a 40 year old Chicago Il, The extant population derives from a European reintroduction of junglefowl to the Gambier Group Thibault and Cibois, Note, Alopecoenas includes taxa in the Central and Eastern Pacific formerly listed in Gallicolumbaso extinct species erected in this genus and from this region are hereafter placed in Alopecoenas.

Tibiotarsi of Alopecoenas nui differ with a markedly prominent mtRMF 4 forming a crest up the lateral side of the sulcus extensorius just proximal to the pons supratendineus; a markedly laterally prominent ltRMF 5 forming a bulge in the lateral margin in cranial aspect and in lacking a prominent epicondylus medialis 8in addition to their smaller size. Alopecoenas leonpascoi of nearby Henderson Island Worthy and Wragg,was one of the larger species in this genus, and had a much smaller and slenderer ulna shaft width of 2. Larger species than Mississippi gambier dating.